Ženšen pravý – nejvýznamnější adaptogenní rostlina

4.7.2012

Ženšen je vytrvalá rostlina, uváděná také pod názvem všehoj léčivý či jako všehoj ženšenový, která má nezaměnitelný vzhled, dlouhou tradici a významné léčebné účinky.

Kořen – nejvýznamnější část rostliny – připomíná svým rozvětvením tvar lidského těla. Je silný, rozvětvený, dužnatý, dlouhý 17–25 cm. Nadzemní část rostliny tvoří většinou jediná štíhlá lodyha, 0,3– 0,7 m vysoká, ukončená 4–5 dlouze řapíkatými, zpravidla pětičetnými listy. Nad růžicí listů, ze středu listového přeslenu, se zvedá květní osa. Na vrcholu osy je soukvětí – jednoduchý okolík. Plodem je šťavnatý, zpočátku zelený bobulovitý plod, který se v červenci a srpnu vybarvuje jasně červeně a ženšen tak lze dobře odlišit od okolních rostlin.

Přirozený výskyt této rostliny na Zemi je omezen na malé území mezi 40–480 severní šířky a 125–1370 východní délky (Korea, Mandžusko). Na Dálném východě ženšen v přírodě roste hlavně v cedro-listnatých lesích. Ženšen je rostlina vývojově velmi stará, která rostla již ve třetihorách, před více než miliónem let. Je tedy jednou z mála rostlin, které prožily a přežily bouřlivý vývoj naší planety. Je neobyčejným představitelem tajgy s řadou zvláštností. Rostlina je obdařena specifi ckými vlastnostmi, jako je např. její neuvěřitelně dlouhý život. Byly nalezeny kořeny staré i 300–400 let.

Kořen života
České pojmenování rostliny má původ v čínském rénshén, což znamená člověk – kořen. To pro tvar kořene, kdy dva hlavní kořeny představují rozkročené nohy člověka. Název se dá také přeložit jako „kořen života“. Kořeny asijského ženšenu pocházejí z různých zemí, a tak se podobně jako u kávy, čaje nebo révy odlišuje ženšen čínský, korejský nebo mandžuský.

V přírodě Dálného východu jsou porosty stále vzácnější a sběr kořenů je proto řízen státními orgány. Ženšen je zanesen v Červené knize ohrožených rostlin. Planě dnes roste pouze v severovýchodních provinciích Číny a v horských oblastech Severní Koreje. V Rusku je rozšířen v hlubokých horských lesích Ussurijské a Přímořské oblasti a jižní části Chabarovského kraje.

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