Vzácná léčivá houba – verpáník lékařský, mizící z přírody

6.10.2011

Verpáník lékařský – Laricifomes officinalis je první houba, která byla v minulosti v Evropě užívána k léčivým účelům. Její starořecký název je Agarikon, anglicky se nazývá Larch Bracket Mushroom nebo německy Lärchen-Porling.

Verpáník patří mezi chorošovité houby. Jeho klobouk bývá 50–200 mm široký a až 200 mm tlustý, kopytovitý, se široce zaobleným okrajem, široce soustředně pásovaný, hladký, nejprve bílý, pak krémový, žlutohnědý až šedohnědavý.

Roste velmi vzácně, jednotlivě nebo po několika plodnicích, v horských a podhorských oblastech, jako parazit na bázi nebo kořenech živých modřínů. Plodnice přirůstá vertikálně ve formě růstových zón odspodu po mnoho let. Jsou dochovány plodnice, které rostly i 30 let.

Verpáník lékařský býval široce rozšířený, v Evropě známý od Španělska přes Francii, Švýcarsko, Itálii, celou střední Evropu, Ukrajinu až po Rusko, a pak dále přes Sibiř až do Severní Ameriky. Dnes je však natolik vzácný; že se v celé Evropě vyskytuje pouze na 84 lokalitách a je proto v některých zemích zařazen do červené knihy ohrožených druhů.

Podle písemné zmínky doporučoval řecký lékař Dioscorides (rok 65 n. l.) používat tuto houbu nazývanou Agarikon proti tuberkulóze a jako protizánětlivý prostředek. Také ve starém Římě byla houba používána, a to při bolestech žaludku, poruchách trávení, žloutence, chorobách ledvin, k uvolnění močových kamenů, astmatu, tuberkulóze, epilepsii a jako protilék při hadím uštknutí.

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